Hooghly River at Kolkata, the river is traditionally called ‘Ganga’ (Ganges), it is one of many tributaries of the Ganges. Vidyasagar Setu, also known as Second Hooghly Bridge in the background, the bridge links the cities of Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta) and Howrah.
Location map of India. Where in the world is India?
Location map of India
Flag of India; click to enlarge
Flag of India
India in brief
Destination India, a Nations Online country profile of the vast country in South-Central Asia that occupies the greater part of the Indian subcontinent. The country borders the Himalayas in the north, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east, and the Laccadive Sea in the south. India shares borders with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar (Burma), China (Xizang – Tibet Autonomous Region), Nepal, and Pakistan, and it shares maritime borders with Indonesia, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
India is the second-most populous country in the world (after China), with an estimated population of 1.37 billion people (in 2020). The country is subdivided into 29 states and seven Union Territories.
With an area of 3,287,263 km², India is the 7th largest country in the world, about one-third the size of the USA.
Capital and largest urban area of India is (New) Delhi; the second largest city is Mumbai. The official languages are Hindi-Urdu and English (the Indian Constitution lists 22 recognized languages).
Republic of India | Bhārat | भारत
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, goes back at least 5,000 years.
Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by European traders beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands.
Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to India’s independence in 1947.
The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.
Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output.
(Source: CIA – The World Factbook)
local short form: Bharat
Int’l conventional long form: Republic of India
Int’l conventional short form: India
ISO Country Code: in, IND
Actual Time: Sat-Mar-27 14:39
Local Time = UTC +5:30h
Country Calling Code: +91
Capital City: Delhi (Dilli)
The Municipality of Delhi (pop. 21 million).
Mumbai, Mumbai Metropolitan Region (formerly Bombay, pop. 18 million)
Chennai, formerly Madras (pop. 9 million), Kolkata (Metro Kolkata 14 million); Bengaluru, formerly Bangalore (8.5 million); Hyderabad (5 million); Ahmedabad (3.7 million)
Independence: 15 August 1947 (from United Kingdom).
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan.
Area: 3.3 million km² (1.3 million sq. mi.)
Terrain: varies from the Himalayas to flat river valleys.
Climate: Varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north.
Nationality: Noun and adjective–Indian(s).
Population (2020): 1.37 billion; urban population 27%, rural population 73%.
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid 2%.
Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5%.
Languages: Hindi, Marathi, English, and 20 other official languages. Literacy: 65%.
Natural resources: Coal, iron, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude oil.
Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry, and fish.
Industries: Textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software.
Exports – commodities: petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel.
Exports – partners: USA 15.2%, UAE 11.4%, Hong Kong 4.6% (2015)
Imports – commodities: crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel.
Imports – partners: China 15.5%, UAE 5.5%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, Switzerland 5.3%, USA 5.2% (2015)
Currency: Indian Rupee (INR)
India in numbers
More India Statistical Data.
Official Sites of India
Prime Minister’s office, Secretariat Building in New Delhi
The Secretariat Building in New Delhi houses the Prime Minister’s office. It also houses the Ministries of Defense, Finance, Home Affairs, and External Affairs.
Image: Laurie Jones
Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
National Portal of India
The web presence of the Government of India.
Prime Minister’s Office
Official site of India’s Prime Minister’s Office.
The President of India
Official website of India’s President.
The Indian Parliament is composed of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People).
Open Government Data Platform (OGD) India.
Directory of official web sites of the Government of India.
Bombay High Court
The Bombay High Court is one of the premier High Courts in India. It has Appellate Jurisdiction over the State of Maharashtra, Goa, Daman & Diu.
Ministry of External Affairs
Official website of the Foreign Ministry. The site includes information on governmental events.
Permanent Mission of India to the UN
India’s representation to the United Nations.
Embassy of India in the U.S.
India’s Diplomatic Missions Abroad
List of India’s Embassies, General Consulates and High Commissions abroad.
Census of India
Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
National Statistical Office of India.
India in numbers
India Key Statistical Data.
Maps of India
Administrative Map of India (click map to enlarge)
Image: © nationsonline.org
Map of India
Administrative Map of India with States and Union Territories and their capitals.
States of India Map
The map shows all 29 states of India with capitals and major cities.
Map of the Kashmir Region
Political Map of the Kashmir Region.
Google Earth Google Earth India
Searchable map/satellite view of India.
Google Earth Google Earth Delhi
Searchable map/satellite view of India’s capital city.
Google Earth Google Earth Kolkata
Searchable map/satellite view of Kolkata, the former Calcutta.
Google Earth Google Earth Mumbai
Searchable map/satellite view of Mumbai, the former Bombay.
Map of Southeast Asia
Map of the Southeast Asia region.
profile Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.
News from India
Secunderabad – National and international news.
Bangalore – National and international news.
A national television service provides domestic and international news.
New Delhi – with news on politics, business, new economy, entertainment, fashion, and lifestyle.
Bombay – India News.
The New Indian Express
English-language daily newspaper published in Chennai.
India Today News
Weekly magazine – the country’s most widely read publication.
India news and information.
The New Indian Express
English-language daily broadsheet from Chennai.
Mumbai based India related magazine with news, business, travel.
Chennai (Madras) – Online edition of India’s National Newspaper.
Times of India
New Delhi – Indian national daily.
India news with regional news from Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, and Punjab.
Weekly News magazine.
A leading Hindi newspaper.
Hindi language news channel, part of India Today Group.
Public TV; operates national, regional, and local services throughout India.
Latest News from India.
Indian English-language news television channel.
Operates satellite, cable TV services, including STAR News; owned by News Corporation.
Zee is one of the most popular entertainment brands in India.
Music from Kolkata.
All India Radio
Akashvani is the national public radio broadcaster; it operates domestic and external networks.
Commercial network with Hindi Music radio stations all over India.
The Guardian | India
Arts & Culture of India
Dravidian architecture style Brihadeeswara Temple in Thanjavur
The Brihadishvara Temple in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.
Arts & Culture
National Portal of India :: Art & Culture
The government site offers comprehensive information related to cultural heritage, ancient monuments, literary, and visual arts.
Arts & Culture India
Incredible India about the country’s art and culture.
Know India: Culture and Heritage
The Ministry of Culture
National Gallery of Modern Art
India’s National Gallery of Modern Art in Delhi.
Indira Gandhi National Center of Art
National center for arts & culture.
The National Museum in Allahabad houses various galleries and collections ranging from ancient stone sculptures to modern Indian paintings.
Lalit Kala Akademi
India’s National Academy of Art.
Quarterly magazine specializing in Indian contemporary art.
Raja Ravi Varma
Comprehensive Wikipedia article about the famous Indian painter.
Music India OnLine
Indian Music Resource.
Ravi Shankar Foundation. The Sitar Man. Ravi Shankar (1920-2012) was an Indian musician and composer of Hindustani classical music. He was best known as an exponent of the sitar, and he popularized the use of the Indian instruments in pop music.
Gandhi Quotes, Philosophy, Biography, and Articles. The site is dedicated to the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Kasturba Gandhi.
Rediscover ancient India. Mystic India is a 2004 film about India’s culture, people, and traditions.
New Delhi, an alternative, non-profit space for an imaginative reconstitution of urban public culture, new/old media practice and research, and critical cultural intervention.
BBC – History of Indian Mathematics
Marcus du Sautoy presents the History of Indian Mathematics, a video on YouTube.
Indian Religion and Deities
Hindu Image Gallery
Image gallery of colorful folk art paintings of Hindu deities.
Comprehensive Wikipedia entry about Hinduism, an Indian religion deeply rooted in Indian culture.
Wikipedia entry about Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region.
Business & Economy of India
Bank of India
The government-owned commercial bank with headquarters in Mumbai was founded in 1906.
Bombay Stock Exchange
Asia’s first stock exchange.
National Stock Exchange of India
The leading stock exchange of India is located in Mumbai.
Punjab National Bank
A banking and financial services bank of the Indian government, headquartered in New Delhi.
Reserve Bank of India
India’s central bank
State Bank of India
Indian multinational, public sector banking and financial services.
Commerce and Industry
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
India’s largest online marketplace.
Council for Leather Exports
Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts
India Trade Promotion Organization
India Trade Promotion Organization is the premier trade promotion agency of the Government of India.
Spices Board India
All about Indian Spices.
The World of India’s Tea.
India’s largest online job portal.
Airlines of India
Homepage of the national airline carrier.
Air India Express
Indian low-cost airline with destinations in India, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Indian low-cost airline based in Mumbai.
Low-cost carrier and India’s largest airline.
Another low-cost airline with its hub at Indira Gandhi International Airport.
Indian airline based in Gurgaon, with its hub at Delhi.
The Deccan Odyssey
India’s newest Luxury Train – Also known as the Palace On Wheels of Maharashtra.
The Palace on Wheels
A classy seven-day rail journey from New Delhi to Chittaurgarh.
Indian Railways (IR) is India’s national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways; it consists of 18 zones (see below).
Indian Railways Passenger Reservation
Trains/Fare/Reservation Availability Status
Darjeeling Himalayan Railway
Darjeeling train service.
Central Railway Mumbai serves the States of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh, connecting 473 stations.
Western Railway serves entire Gujarat, part of Rajasthan and some portion of Madhya Pradesh. It also operates the Mumbai Rajdhani Express, a super-fast express train that runs between Mumbai Central and New Delhi.
Northeast Frontier Railways
North East India rail service.
South Central Railway
The South Central Railway has its headquarters at Secunderabad.
South Eastern Railway
SER, traditionally known as Bengal Nagpur Railway (West Bengal, Orissa and Jharkhand).
East Central Railway
East Central Railway with its Headquarters at Hajipur in Bihar.
West Central Railway
West Central Railway Zone with its headquarters at Jabalpur.
Tourism in India
Royal Chhatris on the bank of the Betwa River in Orchha, India
Royal Chhatris, dome-shaped pavilions, on the bank of the Betwa River in Orchha; Madhya Pradesh.
Destination India – Travel and Tour Guides
Accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, state tourism boards, cities and destination guides, travel themes, information on hotels, airlines, accommodation, and much more.
India’s official tourism portal.
Ministry of Tourism
Official Website of the Ministry of Tourism.
Travel India’s States
List of official tourism websites by state.
Andhra Pradesh Tourism
Official guide to destinations in Andhra Pradesh.
Arunachal Pradesh’s official tourism website.
Assam Department of Tourism
Official tourism website.
Bihar State Tourism
Bihar travel information.
Official guide to the capital of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana.
Chhattisgarh Tourism Board
Useful information for your visit of Chhattisgarh.
Goa Department of Tourism
Government of Goa’s tourism site.
The Official Website of Gujarat Tourism.
Oficial website for tourism in Haryana, the state of northern India.
Himachal Pradesh Tourism
Official tourism website of Himachal to destinations like Shimla, Manali, Kullu, Dharamshala, and others.
Travel the ” Land of Forests” to see holy shrines, tribes, museums, and wildlife sanctuaries.
Bengaluru, Mysuru, Hampi, Srirangapatna, you name it.
Experience Kerala, hills, beaches, festivals, and wildlife.
Destinations in Madhya Pradesh, a larges state in central India.
Explore Maharashtra, the West-Indian state that borders the Arabian Sea.
Official guide to Manipur, the state in northeast India, on the border to Myanmar.
Official tourism portal Meghalaya, “The abode of clouds,” is a mountain state in the northeastern part of the country.
Official guide to Mizoram, the state in northeastern India, between Bangladesh and Myanmar.
Tourist guide to the state in eastern India with a coastline along the Bay of Bengal.
The state is part of the larger Punjab region; it borders Pakistan in the west.
All tourist highlights of Rajasthan.
The state in the southern Himalayas between Nepal, Tibet, and Bhutan.
Explore Tamil Nadu, the state at the southern tip of India.
India’s newest state with Hyderabad at its center.
You’re never alone in India’s most populous state.
Destination Uttarakhand, the state in the Himalayas in northern India.
Almora is a town in Uttarakhand, nestled within the higher peaks of the Himalayas; it offers notable temples and Himalaya treks.
Tour guide to West Bengal in the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal.
India Travel Forum
Forum related to travel in India.
States and Union Territories of India
Comprehensive page about all Indian States and Union Territories.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Rani ki vav, the Queen’s Stepwell, Patan in Gujarat state
Rani ki vav, the Queen’s Stepwell, is a famous stepwell in Patan in Gujarat state, the intricately constructed subterranean water architecture is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Image: Bernard Gagnon
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India
Some of India’s most famous World Heritage Sites.
World Heritage Site Agra Fort
The historical fortress of red sandstone in the city of Agra was the main residence of the emperors of the Islamic Mughal Dynasty.
World Heritage Site Taj Mahal
The famous mausoleum in Agra was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, the Empress consort Mumtaz Mahal.
World Heritage Site Ellora Caves
Over 100 rock-carved caves in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. 34 monasteries and temples with rich sculptural decoration were dug side by side into the wall of a high basalt cliff between 600 and 1000 AD.
World Heritage Site Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya
The Mahabodhi Temple (literally: “Great Awakening Temple”) in Bodh Gaya, the place where Gautama Buddha is said to have attained Enlightenment.
World Heritage Site Rani ki vav
Rani ki vav (The Queen’s Stepwell) is a famous stepwell, an Indian subterranean water resource and storage systems, in Patan, Gujarat.
Education in India
Senate House of the University of Madras
The Senate House is the administrative center of the University of Madras in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Image: Jonas Buchholz
Universities and Science Institutes
Aligarh Muslim University
Indian public university, formerly the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College (founded in 1875), AMU, a Central University since 1920, is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh.
Indian Institute of Science (IISc)
The public institute for research and higher education in science and engineering is located in Bangalore, Karnataka.
Chandigarh, founded in 1882 at Lahore.
University of Madras
“Learning Promotes Natural Talent”; the university is one of the oldest and prestigious universities in India, established in 1857, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM)
One of the leading Indian Institutes of Technology
University of Delhi
A premier university of the country, established in 1922.
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
IIT Delhi is one of the top-ranked universities in India.
University of Hyderabad
The University of Hyderabad is a public research university in Hyderabad, Telangana; it was established in 1974.
University of Mumbai
The former University of Bombay is one of the oldest state universities in India, established in 1857.
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
IIT Bombay is a leading college with its campus at Powai, in East Mumbai.
University of Pune
Savitribai Phule Pune University was established in 1948.
Centre for the Study of Developing Societies
CSDS is an Indian research institute for the social sciences and humanities.
Indian Space Research Organisation
Official website of India’s national space agency.
Environment & Nature
Air pollution in India, the Taj Mahal blanketed by smog
Air pollution in India is a major environmental issue. The image shows the Taj Mahal blanketed by smog.
Ministry of Environment & Forests
The ministry is in charge of the planning, promotion, coordination, and overseeing the implementation of environmental and forestry programs.
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Governmental agency for forestry research and education.
Non-Profit Research Institutions & NGOs:
Bombay Natural History Society
BNHS is a pan-India wildlife research organization that has been promoting the cause of nature conservation since 1883.
Centre for Science and Environment
CSE is a think tank on environment-development issues in India.
Down to Earth
A magazine for the environment, science, and nature.
Delhi Greens is a non-governmental organisation for a green environment and sustainable development.
Environmentalist Foundation of India
EFI is a wildlife conservation and habitat restoration group.
The Energy and Resources Institute
TERI is a research institute in New Delhi that specializes in the fields of energy, environment, and sustainable development.
Vindhyan Ecology and Natural History Foundation
Vindhya Bachao is a non-government organization based in Mirzapur engaged in the environmental protection of the Vindhya Range, the Gangetic Plains, and the Himalayas.
WWF conservation work in India.
15th century Kalpa Sūtra
15th century Kalpa Sūtra (Jain text). The sutra shows the crescent-shaped Siddhashila, a place at the apex of the universe where all Siddhas (liberated souls) reside after Nirvana.
Overview of India’s history from the Great Dynasties to Independence.
From Ancient India History to Modern India.
Medieval History of India
Article about India’s medieval history from the National Portal of India.
Timeline of India’s History
An overview of India’s history.
Wikipedia W History of India
Wikipedia entry about India’s long history.
WWW-VL: HISTORY: INDIA
Index of India History sites.
Indigenous People of India
Baiga women in traditional dress, Madhya Pradesh
Young Baiga women in traditional dress, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Image: Ekta Parishad
India is home to about 700 tribal groups with a population of over 104 million.
Wikipedia article about Adivasi, the collective term for the Scheduled Tribes of India.
The Indigenous Colour of India – The Indian Tribes
Tourmyindia article about various Indigenous peoples of India.
Indigenous people in India and the web of indifference
Down to Earth article about India’s indigenous rights and the struggles for oil, coal, and forests at the expense of Indian tribes.
Selected country profiles of India published by international organizations.
Amnesty International: India
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
BBC News Country Profile: India
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.
BTI Transformation Index India
India Country Report by Bertelsmann Stiftung.
The Commonwealth: India
Profile of the Commonwealth Member country India.
The UN Food and Agriculture Organization in India.
Freedom House profile India
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.
Global business knowledge portal – Global Insights by country India.
The Heritage Foundation: India
2020 Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.
Human Rights Watch: India
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.
Reporters Without Borders: India
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.
UNDP – Human Development Indicators: India
The UN Human Development Index (HDI) for India
Wikipedia’s India page in many languages.
The CIA World Factbook — India
The CIA World Factbook intelligence on India.
States of India:
Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Google Maps of India’s Union Territories:
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep, Puducherry
Countries in South Central Asia:
Afghanistan | Bangladesh | Bhutan | Iran | Kazakhstan | Kyrgyzstan | Maldives | Nepal | Pakistan | Sri Lanka | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Uzbekistan
Major countries in the Asia-Pacific region
Australia | Brunei | Cambodia | China | Hong Kong | Indonesia | Japan | Laos | Malaysia | Mongolia | Myanmar | North Korea | Philippines | Singapore | South Korea | Taiwan (ROC) | Thailand | Timor Leste | Vietnam
One World – Nations Online